Understanding ejabberd hosts
The host parameter is very commonly used through ejabberd code base. It is very important to understand what it means and how it is used.
Most XMPP service are reference as subdomain of the main XMPP domain. For example, Multi User Chat or Publish-Subscribe are available as subdomains of the main XMPP domain served by an installation.
You can also plug external components to an ejabberd server. External components will have their own subdomain as well and will be exchanging data with ejabberd using a simplified XML stream.
Components can be written in any programming language. ejabberd supports XEP-0114: Jabber Component Protocol.
Note the external component have limited rights on the XMPP server. As such, it is less powerful than an ejabberd module written in Erlang or Elixir. Some proposed XMPP extensions, like Privilege Entities, may grant more privileges in the future to external components.
ejabberd fully support virtual hosting. It means that the same ejabberd cluster can provide the service for multiple user bases using a single deployment. Each virtual hosts is totally independent from the other domain. They can have a different configurations.